[1] arXiv:2006.09303 [pdf]
Unsupervised Pansharpening Based on Self-Attention Mechanism
Ying Qu, Razieh Kaviani Baghbaderani, Hairong Qi, Chiman Kwan
Pansharpening is to fuse a multispectral image (MSI) of low-spatial-resolution (LR) but rich spectral characteristics with a panchromatic image (PAN) of high-spatial-resolution (HR) but poor spectral characteristics. Traditional methods usually inject the extracted high-frequency details from PAN into the up-sampled MSI. Recent deep learning endeavors are mostly supervised assuming the HR MSI is available, which is unrealistic especially for satellite images. Nonetheless, these methods could not fully exploit the rich spectral characteristics in the MSI. Due to the wide existence of mixed pixels in satellite images where each pixel tends to cover more than one constituent material, pansharpening at the subpixel level becomes essential. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised pansharpening (UP) method in a deep-learning framework to address the above challenges based on the self-attention mechanism (SAM), referred to as UP-SAM. The contribution of this paper is three-fold. First, the self-attention mechanism is proposed where the spatial varying detail extraction and injection functions are estimated according to the attention representations indicating spectral characteristics of the MSI with sub-pixel accuracy. Second, such attention representations are derived from mixed pixels with the proposed stacked attention network powered with a stick-breaking structure to meet the physical constraints of mixed pixel formulations. Third, the detail extraction and injection functions are spatial varying based on the attention representations, which largely improves the reconstruction accuracy. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to reconstruct sharper MSI of different types, with more details and less spectral distortion as compared to the state-of-the-art.
[2] arXiv:2006.09299 [pdf]
A New Run-based Connected Component Labeling for Efficiently Analyzing and Processing Holes
Florian Lemaitre, Lionel Lacassagne
This article introduces a new connected component labeling and analysis algorithm for foreground and background labeling that computes the adjacency tree. The computation of features (bounding boxes, first statistical moments, Euler number) is done on-the-fly. The transitive closure enables an efficient hole processing that can be filled while their features are merged with the surrounding connected component without the need to rescan the image. A comparison with existing algorithms shows that this new algorithm can do all these computations faster than algorithms processing black and white components.
[3] arXiv:2006.09199 [pdf]
AVLnet Learning Audio-Visual Language Representations from Instructional Videos
Andrew Rouditchenko, Angie Boggust, David Harwath, Dhiraj Joshi, Samuel Thomas, Kartik Audhkhasi, Rogerio Feris, Brian Kingsbury, Michael Picheny, Antonio Torralba, James Glass
Current methods for learning visually grounded language from videos often rely on time-consuming and expensive data collection, such as human annotated textual summaries or machine generated automatic speech recognition transcripts. In this work, we introduce Audio-Video Language Network (AVLnet), a self-supervised network that learns a shared audio-visual embedding space directly from raw video inputs. We circumvent the need for annotation and instead learn audio-visual language representations directly from randomly segmented video clips and their raw audio waveforms. We train AVLnet on publicly available instructional videos and evaluate our model on video clip and language retrieval tasks on three video datasets. Our proposed model outperforms several state-of-the-art text-video baselines by up to 11.8% in a video clip retrieval task, despite operating on the raw audio instead of manually annotated text captions. Further, we show AVLnet is capable of integrating textual information, increasing its modularity and improving performance by up to 20.3% on the video clip retrieval task. Finally, we perform analysis of AVLnet's learned representations, showing our model has learned to relate visual objects with salient words and natural sounds.
[4] arXiv:2006.09197 [pdf]
Dense Non-Rigid Structure from Motion A Manifold Viewpoint
Suryansh Kumar, Luc Van Gool, Carlos E. P. de Oliveira, Anoop Cherian, Yuchao Dai, Hongdong Li
Non-Rigid Structure-from-Motion (NRSfM) problem aims to recover 3D geometry of a deforming object from its 2D feature correspondences across multiple frames. Classical approaches to this problem assume a small number of feature points and, ignore the local non-linearities of the shape deformation, and therefore, struggles to reliably model non-linear deformations. Furthermore, available dense NRSfM algorithms are often hurdled by scalability, computations, noisy measurements and, restricted to model just global deformation. In this paper, we propose algorithms that can overcome these limitations with the previous methods and, at the same time, can recover a reliable dense 3D structure of a non-rigid object with higher accuracy. Assuming that a deforming shape is composed of a union of local linear subspace and, span a global low-rank space over multiple frames enables us to efficiently model complex non-rigid deformations. To that end, each local linear subspace is represented using Grassmannians and, the global 3D shape across multiple frames is represented using a low-rank representation. We show that our approach significantly improves accuracy, scalability, and robustness against noise. Also, our representation naturally allows for simultaneous reconstruction and clustering framework which in general is observed to be more suitable for NRSfM problems. Our method currently achieves leading performance on the standard benchmark datasets.
[5] arXiv:2006.09142 [pdf]
Cogradient Descent for Bilinear Optimization
Li'an Zhuo, Baochang Zhang, Linlin Yang, Hanlin Chen, Qixiang Ye, David Doermann, Guodong Guo, Rongrong Ji
Conventional learning methods simplify the bilinear model by regarding two intrinsically coupled factors independently, which degrades the optimization procedure. One reason lies in the insufficient training due to the asynchronous gradient descent, which results in vanishing gradients for the coupled variables. In this paper, we introduce a Cogradient Descent algorithm (CoGD) to address the bilinear problem, based on a theoretical framework to coordinate the gradient of hidden variables via a projection function. We solve one variable by considering its coupling relationship with the other, leading to a synchronous gradient descent to facilitate the optimization procedure. Our algorithm is applied to solve problems with one variable under the sparsity constraint, which is widely used in the learning paradigm. We validate our CoGD considering an extensive set of applications including image reconstruction, inpainting, and network pruning. Experiments show that it improves the state-of-the-art by a significant margin.
[6] arXiv:2006.09141 [pdf]
Improving accuracy and speeding up Document Image Classification through parallel systems
Javier Ferrando, Juan Luis Dominguez, Jordi Torres, Raul Garcia, David Garcia, Daniel Garrido, Jordi Cortada, Mateo Valero
This paper presents a study showing the benefits of the EfficientNet models compared with heavier Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) in the Document Classification task, essential problem in the digitalization process of institutions. We show in the RVL-CDIP dataset that we can improve previous results with a much lighter model and present its transfer learning capabilities on a smaller in-domain dataset such as Tobacco3482. Moreover, we present an ensemble pipeline which is able to boost solely image input by combining image model predictions with the ones generated by BERT model on extracted text by OCR. We also show that the batch size can be effectively increased without hindering its accuracy so that the training process can be sped up by parallelizing throughout multiple GPUs, decreasing the computational time needed. Lastly, we expose the training performance differences between PyTorch and Tensorflow Deep Learning frameworks.
[7] arXiv:2006.09128 [pdf]
Gradient Alignment in Deep Neural Networks
Suraj Srinivas, Francois Fleuret
One cornerstone of interpretable deep learning is the high degree of visual alignment that input-gradients, i.e.,the gradients of the output w.r.t. inputs, exhibit with the input data. This alignment is assumed to arise as a result of the model's generalization, justifying its use for interpretability. However, recent work has shown that it is possible to 'fool' models into having arbitrary gradients while achieving good generalization, thus falsifying the assumption above. This leaves an open question if not generalization, what causes input-gradients to align with input data? In this work, we first show that it is simple to 'fool' input-gradients using the shift-invariance property of softmax, and that gradient structure is unrelated to model generalization. Second, we re-interpret the logits of standard classifiers as unnormalized log-densities of the data distribution, and find that we can improve this gradient alignment via a generative modelling objective called this http URL show this, we derive a novel approximation to the score-matching objective that eliminates the need for expensive Hessian computations, which may be of independent interest.Our experiments help us identify one factor that causes input-gradient alignment in models, that being the approximate generative modelling behaviour of the normalized logit distributions.
[8] arXiv:2006.09107 [pdf]
Learning from Demonstration with Weakly Supervised Disentanglement
Yordan Hristov, Subramanian Ramamoorthy
Robotic manipulation tasks, such as wiping with a soft sponge, require control from multiple rich sensory modalities. Human-robot interaction, aimed at teaching robots, is difficult in this setting as there is potential for mismatch between human and machine comprehension of the rich data streams. We treat the task of interpretable learning from demonstration as an optimisation problem over a probabilistic generative model. To account for the high-dimensionality of the data, a high-capacity neural network is chosen to represent the model. The latent variables in this model are explicitly aligned with high-level notions and concepts that are manifested in a set of demonstrations. We show that such alignment is best achieved through the use of labels from the end user, in an appropriately restricted vocabulary, in contrast to the conventional approach of the designer picking a prior over the latent variables. Our approach is evaluated in the context of a table-top robot manipulation task performed by a PR2 robot -- that of dabbing liquids with a sponge (forcefully pressing a sponge and moving it along a surface). The robot provides visual information, arm joint positions and arm joint efforts. We have made videos of the task and data available - see supplementary materials at this https URL
[9] arXiv:2006.09102 [pdf]
UCSG-Net -- Unsupervised Discovering of Constructive Solid Geometry Tree
Kacper Kania, Maciej Zięba, Tomasz Kajdanowicz
Signed distance field (SDF) is a prominent implicit representation of 3D meshes. Methods that are based on such representation achieved state-of-the-art 3D shape reconstruction quality. However, these methods struggle to reconstruct non-convex shapes. One remedy is to incorporate a constructive solid geometry framework (CSG) that represents a shape as a decomposition into primitives. It allows to embody a 3D shape of high complexity and non-convexity with a simple tree representation of Boolean operations. Nevertheless, existing approaches are supervised and require the entire CSG parse tree that is given upfront during the training process. On the contrary, we propose a model that extracts a CSG parse tree without any supervision - UCSG-Net. Our model predicts parameters of primitives and binarizes their SDF representation through differentiable indicator function. It is achieved jointly with discovering the structure of a Boolean operators tree. The model selects dynamically which operator combination over primitives leads to the reconstruction of high fidelity. We evaluate our method on 2D and 3D autoencoding tasks. We show that the predicted parse tree representation is interpretable and can be used in CAD software.
[10] arXiv:2006.09042 [pdf]
Fine-Tuning DARTS for Image Classification
Muhammad Suhaib Tanveer, Muhammad Umar Karim Khan, Chong-Min Kyung
Neural Architecture Search (NAS) has gained attraction due to superior classification performance. Differential Architecture Search (DARTS) is a computationally light method. To limit computational resources DARTS makes numerous approximations. These approximations result in inferior performance. We propose to fine-tune DARTS using fixed operations as they are independent of these approximations. Our method offers a good trade-off between the number of parameters and classification accuracy. Our approach improves the top-1 accuracy on Fashion-MNIST, CompCars, and MIO-TCD datasets by 0.56%, 0.50%, and 0.39%, respectively compared to the state-of-the-art approaches. Our approach performs better than DARTS, improving the accuracy by 0.28%, 1.64%, 0.34%, 4.5%, and 3.27% compared to DARTS, on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, Fashion-MNIST, CompCars, and MIO-TCD datasets, respectively.
[11] arXiv:2006.09001 [pdf]
RL-CycleGAN Reinforcement Learning Aware Simulation-To-Real
Kanishka Rao, Chris Harris, Alex Irpan, Sergey Levine, Julian Ibarz, Mohi Khansari
Deep neural network based reinforcement learning (RL) can learn appropriate visual representations for complex tasks like vision-based robotic grasping without the need for manually engineering or prior learning a perception system. However, data for RL is collected via running an agent in the desired environment, and for applications like robotics, running a robot in the real world may be extremely costly and time consuming. Simulated training offers an appealing alternative, but ensuring that policies trained in simulation can transfer effectively into the real world requires additional machinery. Simulations may not match reality, and typically bridging the simulation-to-reality gap requires domain knowledge and task-specific engineering. We can automate this process by employing generative models to translate simulated images into realistic ones. However, this sort of translation is typically task-agnostic, in that the translated images may not preserve all features that are relevant to the task. In this paper, we introduce the RL-scene consistency loss for image translation, which ensures that the translation operation is invariant with respect to the Q-values associated with the image. This allows us to learn a task-aware translation. Incorporating this loss into unsupervised domain translation, we obtain RL-CycleGAN, a new approach for simulation-to-real-world transfer for reinforcement learning. In evaluations of RL-CycleGAN on two vision-based robotics grasping tasks, we show that RL-CycleGAN offers a substantial improvement over a number of prior methods for sim-to-real transfer, attaining excellent real-world performance with only a modest number of real-world observations.
[12] arXiv:2006.09000 [pdf]
How Much Can I Trust You? -- Quantifying Uncertainties in Explaining Neural Networks
Kirill Bykov, Marina M.-C. Höhne, Klaus-Robert Müller, Shinichi Nakajima, Marius Kloft
Explainable AI (XAI) aims to provide interpretations for predictions made by learning machines, such as deep neural networks, in order to make the machines more transparent for the user and furthermore trustworthy also for applications in e.g. safety-critical areas. So far, however, no methods for quantifying uncertainties of explanations have been conceived, which is problematic in domains where a high confidence in explanations is a prerequisite. We therefore contribute by proposing a new framework that allows to convert any arbitrary explanation method for neural networks into an explanation method for Bayesian neural networks, with an in-built modeling of uncertainties. Within the Bayesian framework a network's weights follow a distribution that extends standard single explanation scores and heatmaps to distributions thereof, in this manner translating the intrinsic network model uncertainties into a quantification of explanation uncertainties. This allows us for the first time to carve out uncertainties associated with a model explanation and subsequently gauge the appropriate level of explanation confidence for a user (using percentiles). We demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of our approach extensively in various experiments, both qualitatively and quantitatively.
[13] arXiv:2006.08937 [pdf]
Channel Relationship Prediction with Forget-Update Module for Few-shot Classification
Minglei Yuan, Cunhao Cai, Tong Lu
In this paper, we proposed a pipeline for inferring the relationship of each class in support set and a query sample using forget-update module. We first propose a novel architectural module called "channel vector sequence construction module", which boosts the performance of sequence-prediction-model-based few-shot classification methods by collecting the overall information of all support samples and a query sample. The channel vector sequence generated by this module is organized in a way that each time step of the sequence contains the information from the corresponding channel of all support samples and the query sample to be inferred. Channel vector sequence is obtained by a convolutional neural network and a fully connected network, and the spliced channel vector sequence is spliced of the corresponding channel vectors of support samples and a query sample in the original channel order. Also, we propose a forget-update module consisting of stacked forget-update blocks. The forget block modify the original information with the learned weights and the update block establishes a dense connection for the model. The proposed pipeline, which consists of channel vector sequence construction module and forget-update module, can infer the relationship between the query sample and support samples in few-shot classification scenario. Experimental results show that the pipeline can achieve state-of-the-art results on miniImagenet, CUB dataset, and cross-domain scenario.
[14] arXiv:2006.08565 [pdf]
Spectral DiffuserCam lensless snapshot hyperspectral imaging with a spectral filter array
Kristina Monakhova, Kyrollos Yanny, Neerja Aggarwal, Laura Waller
Hyperspectral imaging is useful for applications ranging from medical diagnostics to crop monitoring; however, traditional scanning hyperspectral imagers are prohibitively slow and expensive for widespread adoption. Snapshot techniques exist but are often confined to bulky benchtop setups or have low spatio-spectral resolution. In this paper, we propose a novel, compact, and inexpensive computational camera for snapshot hyperspectral imaging. Our system consists of a repeated spectral filter array placed directly on the image sensor and a diffuser placed close to the sensor. Each point in the world maps to a unique pseudorandom pattern on the spectral filter array, which encodes multiplexed spatio-spectral information. A sparsity-constrained inverse problem solver then recovers the hyperspectral volume with good spatio-spectral resolution. By using a spectral filter array, our hyperspectral imaging framework is flexible and can be designed with contiguous or non-contiguous spectral filters that can be chosen for a given application. We provide theory for system design, demonstrate a prototype device, and present experimental results with high spatio-spectral resolution.
[15] arXiv:2006.08558 [pdf]
Learning Diverse and Discriminative Representations via the Principle of Maximal Coding Rate Reduction
Yaodong Yu, Kwan Ho Ryan Chan, Chong You, Chaobing Song, Yi Ma
To learn intrinsic low-dimensional structures from high-dimensional data that most discriminate between classes, we propose the principle of Maximal Coding Rate Reduction ($\text{MCR}^2$), an information-theoretic measure that maximizes the coding rate difference between the whole dataset and the sum of each individual class. We clarify its relationships with most existing frameworks such as cross-entropy, information bottleneck, information gain, contractive and contrastive learning, and provide theoretical guarantees for learning diverse and discriminative features. The coding rate can be accurately computed from finite samples of degenerate subspace-like distributions and can learn intrinsic representations in supervised, self-supervised, and unsupervised settings in a unified manner. Empirically, the representations learned using this principle alone are significantly more robust to label corruptions in classification than those using cross-entropy, and can lead to state-of-the-art results in clustering mixed data from self-learned invariant features.
[16] arXiv:2006.08509 [pdf]
APQ Joint Search for Network Architecture, Pruning and Quantization Policy
Tianzhe Wang, Kuan Wang, Han Cai, Ji Lin, Zhijian Liu, Song Han
We present APQ for efficient deep learning inference on resource-constrained hardware. Unlike previous methods that separately search the neural architecture, pruning policy, and quantization policy, we optimize them in a joint manner. To deal with the larger design space it brings, a promising approach is to train a quantization-aware accuracy predictor to quickly get the accuracy of the quantized model and feed it to the search engine to select the best fit. However, training this quantization-aware accuracy predictor requires collecting a large number of quantized pairs, which involves quantization-aware finetuning and thus is highly time-consuming. To tackle this challenge, we propose to transfer the knowledge from a full-precision (i.e., fp32) accuracy predictor to the quantization-aware (i.e., int8) accuracy predictor, which greatly improves the sample efficiency. Besides, collecting the dataset for the fp32 accuracy predictor only requires to evaluate neural networks without any training cost by sampling from a pretrained once-for-all network, which is highly efficient. Extensive experiments on ImageNet demonstrate the benefits of our joint optimization approach. With the same accuracy, APQ reduces the latency/energy by 2x/1.3x over MobileNetV2+HAQ. Compared to the separate optimization approach (ProxylessNAS+AMC+HAQ), APQ achieves 2.3% higher ImageNet accuracy while reducing orders of magnitude GPU hours and CO2 emission, pushing the frontier for green AI that is environmental-friendly. The code and video are publicly available.
[17] arXiv:2006.08321 [pdf]
On the Preservation of Spatio-temporal Information in Machine Learning Applications
Yigit Oktar, Mehmet Turkan
In conventional machine learning applications, each data attribute is assumed to be orthogonal to others. Namely, every pair of dimension is orthogonal to each other and thus there is no distinction of in-between relations of dimensions. However, this is certainly not the case in real world signals which naturally originate from a spatio-temporal configuration. As a result, the conventional vectorization process disrupts all of the spatio-temporal information about the order/place of data whether it be $1$D, $2$D, $3$D, or $4$D. In this paper, the problem of orthogonality is first investigated through conventional $k$-means of images, where images are to be processed as vectors. As a solution, shift-invariant $k$-means is proposed in a novel framework with the help of sparse representations. A generalization of shift-invariant $k$-means, convolutional dictionary learning, is then utilized as an unsupervised feature extraction method for classification. Experiments suggest that Gabor feature extraction as a simulation of shallow convolutional neural networks provides a little better performance compared to convolutional dictionary learning. Many alternatives of convolutional-logic are also discussed for spatio-temporal information preservation, including a spatio-temporal hypercomplex encoding scheme.
[18] arXiv:2006.08178 [pdf]
Binary DAD-Net Binarized Driveable Area Detection Network for Autonomous Driving
Alexander Frickenstein, Manoj Rohit Vemparala, Jakob Mayr, Naveen Shankar Nagaraja, Christian Unger, Federico Tombari, Walter Stechele
Driveable area detection is a key component for various applications in the field of autonomous driving (AD), such as ground-plane detection, obstacle detection and maneuver planning. Additionally, bulky and over-parameterized networks can be easily forgone and replaced with smaller networks for faster inference on embedded systems. The driveable area detection, posed as a two class segmentation task, can be efficiently modeled with slim binary networks. This paper proposes a novel binarized driveable area detection network (binary DAD-Net), which uses only binary weights and activations in the encoder, the bottleneck, and the decoder part. The latent space of the bottleneck is efficiently increased (x32 -> x16 downsampling) through binary dilated convolutions, learning more complex features. Along with automatically generated training data, the binary DAD-Net outperforms state-of-the-art semantic segmentation networks on public datasets. In comparison to a full-precision model, our approach has a x14.3 reduced compute complexity on an FPGA and it requires only 0.9MB memory resources. Therefore, commodity SIMD-based AD-hardware is capable of accelerating the binary DAD-Net.
[19] arXiv:2006.08162 [pdf]
Filter design for small target detection on infrared imagery using normalized-cross-correlation layer
H. Seçkin Demir, Erdem Akagunduz
In this paper, we introduce a machine learning approach to the problem of infrared small target detection filter design. For this purpose, similarly to a convolutional layer of a neural network, the normalized-cross-correlational (NCC) layer, which we utilize for designing a target detection/recognition filter bank, is proposed. By employing the NCC layer in a neural network structure, we introduce a framework, in which supervised training is used to calculate the optimal filter shape and the optimum number of filters required for a specific target detection/recognition task on infrared images. We also propose the mean-absolute-deviation NCC (MAD-NCC) layer, an efficient implementation of the proposed NCC layer, designed especially for FPGA systems, in which square root operations are avoided for real-time computation. As a case study we work on dim-target detection on mid-wave infrared imagery and obtain the filters that can discriminate a dim target from various types of background clutter, specific to our operational concept.
[20] arXiv:2006.08145 [pdf]
Classifying degraded images over various levels of degradation
Kazuki Endo, Masayuki Tanaka, Masatoshi Okutomi
Classification for degraded images having various levels of degradation is very important in practical applications. This paper proposes a convolutional neural network to classify degraded images by using a restoration network and an ensemble learning. The results demonstrate that the proposed network can classify degraded images over various levels of degradation well. This paper also reveals how the image-quality of training data for a classification network affects the classification performance of degraded images.
[21] arXiv:2006.08098 [pdf]
Utility and Privacy in Object Tracking from Video Stream using Kalman Filter
Niladri Das, Raktim Bhattacharya
Tracking objects in Computer Vision is a hard problem. Privacy and utility concerns adds an extra layer of complexity over this problem. In this work we consider the problem of maintaining privacy and utility while tracking an object in a video stream using Kalman filtering. Our first proposed method ensures that the localization accuracy of this object will not improve beyond a certain level. Our second method ensures that the localization accuracy of the same object will always remain under a certain threshold.
[22] arXiv:2006.07995 [pdf]
BatVision with GCC-PHAT Features for Better Sound to Vision Predictions
Jesper Haahr Christensen, Sascha Hornauer, Stella Yu
Inspired by sophisticated echolocation abilities found in nature, we train a generative adversarial network to predict plausible depth maps and grayscale layouts from sound. To achieve this, our sound-to-vision model processes binaural echo-returns from chirping sounds. We build upon previous work with BatVision that consists of a sound-to-vision model and a self-collected dataset using our mobile robot and low-cost hardware. We improve on the previous model by introducing several changes to the model, which leads to a better depth and grayscale estimation, and increased perceptual quality. Rather than using raw binaural waveforms as input, we generate generalized cross-correlation (GCC) features and use these as input instead. In addition, we change the model generator and base it on residual learning and use spectral normalization in the discriminator. We compare and present both quantitative and qualitative improvements over our previous BatVision model.
[23] arXiv:2006.07993 [pdf]
Road Mapping in Low Data Environments with OpenStreetMap
John Kamalu, Benjamin Choi
Roads are among the most essential components of any country's infrastructure. By facilitating the movement and exchange of people, ideas, and goods, they support economic and cultural activity both within and across local and international borders. A comprehensive, up-to-date mapping of the geographical distribution of roads and their quality thus has the potential to act as an indicator for broader economic development. Such an indicator has a variety of high-impact applications, particularly in the planning of rural development projects where up-to-date infrastructure information is not available. This work investigates the viability of high resolution satellite imagery and crowd-sourced resources like OpenStreetMap in the construction of such a mapping. We experiment with state-of-the-art deep learning methods to explore the utility of OpenStreetMap data in road classification and segmentation tasks. We also compare the performance of models in different mask occlusion scenarios as well as out-of-country domains. Our comparison raises important pitfalls to consider in image-based infrastructure classification tasks, and shows the need for local training data specific to regions of interest for reliable performance.
[24] arXiv:2006.07965 [pdf]
Meta Approach to Data Augmentation Optimization
Ryuichiro Hataya, Jan Zdenek, Kazuki Yoshizoe, Hideki Nakayama
Data augmentation policies drastically improve the performance of image recognition tasks, especially when the policies are optimized for the target data and tasks. In this paper, we propose to optimize image recognition models and data augmentation policies simultaneously to improve the performance using gradient descent. Unlike prior methods, our approach avoids using proxy tasks or reducing search space, and can directly improve the validation performance. Our method achieves efficient and scalable training by approximating the gradient of policies by implicit gradient with Neumann series approximation. We demonstrate that our approach can improve the performance of various image classification tasks, including ImageNet classification and fine-grained recognition, without using dataset-specific hyperparameter tuning.
[25] arXiv:2006.07877 [pdf]
FenceMask A Data Augmentation Approach for Pre-extracted Image Features
Pu Li, Xiangyang Li, Xiang Long
We propose a novel data augmentation method named 'FenceMask' that exhibits outstanding performance in various computer vision tasks. It is based on the 'simulation of object occlusion' strategy, which aim to achieve the balance between object occlusion and information retention of the input data. By enhancing the sparsity and regularity of the occlusion block, our augmentation method overcome the difficulty of small object augmentation and notably improve performance over baselines. Sufficient experiments prove the performance of our method is better than other simulate object occlusion approaches. We tested it on CIFAR10, CIFAR100 and ImageNet datasets for Coarse-grained classification, COCO2017 and VisDrone datasets for detection, Oxford Flowers, Cornel Leaf and Stanford Dogs datasets for Fine-Grained Visual Categorization. Our method achieved significant performance improvement on Fine-Grained Visual Categorization task and VisDrone dataset.
[26] arXiv:2006.07845 [pdf]
An adversarial learning algorithm for mitigating gender bias in face recognition
Prithviraj Dhar, Joshua Gleason, Hossein Souri, Carlos D. Castillo, Rama Chellappa
State-of-the-art face recognition networks implicitly encode gender information while being trained for identity classification. Gender is often viewed as an important face attribute to recognize humans. But, the expression of gender information in deep facial features appears to contribute to gender bias in face recognition, i.e. we find a significant difference in the recognition accuracy of DCNNs on male and female faces. We hypothesize that reducing implicitly encoded gender information will help reduce this gender bias. Therefore, we present a novel approach called `Adversarial Gender De-biasing (AGD)' to reduce the strength of gender information in face recognition features. We accomplish this by introducing a bias reducing classification loss $L_{br}$. We show that AGD significantly reduces bias, while achieving reasonable recognition performance. The results of our approach are presented on two state-of-the-art networks.
[27] arXiv:2006.07825 [pdf]
Working with scale 2nd place solution to Product Detection in Densely Packed Scenes [Technical Report]
Artem Kozlov
This report describes a 2nd place solution of the detection challenge which is held within CVPR 2020 Retail-Vision workshop. Instead of going further considering previous results this work mainly aims to verify previously observed takeaways by re-experimenting. The reliability and reproducibility of the results are reached by incorporating a popular object detection toolbox - MMDetection. In this report, I firstly represent the results received for Faster-RCNN and RetinaNet models, which were taken for comparison in the original work. Then I describe the experiment results with more advanced models. The final section reviews two simple tricks for Faster-RCNN model that were used for my final submission changing default anchor scale parameter and train-time image tiling. The source code is available at this https URL.
[28] arXiv:2006.07818 [pdf]
Alternating ConvLSTM Learning Force Propagation with Alternate State Updates
Congyue Deng, Tai-Jiang Mu, Shi-Min Hu
Data-driven simulation is an important step-forward in computational physics when traditional numerical methods meet their limits. Learning-based simulators have been widely studied in past years; however, most previous works view simulation as a general spatial-temporal prediction problem and take little physical guidance in designing their neural network architectures. In this paper, we introduce the alternating convolutional Long Short-Term Memory (Alt-ConvLSTM) that models the force propagation mechanisms in a deformable object with near-uniform material properties. Specifically, we propose an accumulation state, and let the network update its cell state and the accumulation state alternately. We demonstrate how this novel scheme imitates the alternate updates of the first and second-order terms in the forward Euler method of numerical PDE solvers. Benefiting from this, our network only requires a small number of parameters, independent of the number of the simulated particles, and also retains the essential features in ConvLSTM, making it naturally applicable to sequential data with spatial inputs and outputs. We validate our Alt-ConvLSTM on human soft tissue simulation with thousands of particles and consistent body pose changes. Experimental results show that Alt-ConvLSTM efficiently models the material kinetic features and greatly outperforms vanilla ConvLSTM with only the single state update.
[29] arXiv:2006.07795 [pdf]
Hyper RPCA Joint Maximum Correntropy Criterion and Laplacian Scale Mixture Modeling On-the-Fly for Moving Object Detection
Zerui Shao, Yifei Pu, Jiliu Zhou, Bihan Wen, Yi Zhang
Moving object detection is critical for automated video analysis in many vision-related tasks, such as surveillance tracking, video compression coding, etc. Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA), as one of the most popular moving object modelling methods, aims to separate the temporally varying (i.e., moving) foreground objects from the static background in video, assuming the background frames to be low-rank while the foreground to be spatially sparse. Classic RPCA imposes sparsity of the foreground component using l1-norm, and minimizes the modeling error via 2-norm. We show that such assumptions can be too restrictive in practice, which limits the effectiveness of the classic RPCA, especially when processing videos with dynamic background, camera jitter, camouflaged moving object, etc. In this paper, we propose a novel RPCA-based model, called Hyper RPCA, to detect moving objects on the fly. Different from classic RPCA, the proposed Hyper RPCA jointly applies the maximum correntropy criterion (MCC) for the modeling error, and Laplacian scale mixture (LSM) model for foreground objects. Extensive experiments have been conducted, and the results demonstrate that the proposed Hyper RPCA has competitive performance for foreground detection to the state-of-the-art algorithms on several well-known benchmark datasets.
[30] arXiv:2006.07743 [pdf]
3DFCNN Real-Time Action Recognition using 3D Deep Neural Networks with Raw Depth Information
Adrian Sanchez-Caballero, Sergio de López-Diz, David Fuentes-Jimenez, Cristina Losada-Gutiérrez, Marta Marrón-Romera, David Casillas-Perez, Mohammad Ibrahim Sarker
Human actions recognition is a fundamental task in artificial vision, that has earned a great importance in recent years due to its multiple applications in different areas. %, such as the study of human behavior, security or video surveillance. In this context, this paper describes an approach for real-time human action recognition from raw depth image-sequences, provided by an RGB-D camera. The proposal is based on a 3D fully convolutional neural network, named 3DFCNN, which automatically encodes spatio-temporal patterns from depth sequences without %any costly pre-processing. Furthermore, the described 3D-CNN allows %automatic features extraction and actions classification from the spatial and temporal encoded information of depth sequences. The use of depth data ensures that action recognition is carried out protecting people's privacy% allows recognizing the actions carried out by people, protecting their privacy%\sout{of them} , since their identities can not be recognized from these data. %\st{ from depth images.} 3DFCNN has been evaluated and its results compared to those from other state-of-the-art methods within three widely used %large-scale NTU RGB+D datasets, with different characteristics (resolution, sensor type, number of views, camera location, etc.). The obtained results allows validating the proposal, concluding that it outperforms several state-of-the-art approaches based on classical computer vision techniques. Furthermore, it achieves action recognition accuracy comparable to deep learning based state-of-the-art methods with a lower computational cost, which allows its use in real-time applications.
[31] arXiv:2006.07722 [pdf]
V2E From video frames to realistic DVS event camera streams
Tobi Delbruck, Yuhuang Hu, Zhe He
To help meet the increasing need for dynamic vision sensor (DVS) event camera data, we developed the v2e toolbox, which generates synthetic DVS event streams from intensity frame videos. Videos can be of any type, either real or synthetic. v2e optionally uses synthetic slow motion to upsample the video frame rate and then generates DVS events from these frames using a realistic pixel model that includes event threshold mismatch, finite illumination-dependent bandwidth, and several types of noise. v2e includes an algorithm that determines the DVS thresholds and bandwidth so that the synthetic event stream statistics match a given reference DVS recording. v2e is the first toolbox that can synthesize realistic low light DVS data. This paper also clarifies misleading claims about DVS characteristics in some of the computer vision literature. The v2e website is this https URL and code is hosted at this https URL.
[32] arXiv:2006.07607 [pdf]
HRDNet High-resolution Detection Network for Small Objects
Ziming Liu, Guangyu Gao, Lin Sun, Zhiyuan Fang
Small object detection is challenging because small objects do not contain detailed information and may even disappear in the deep network. Usually, feeding high-resolution images into a network can alleviate this issue. However, simply enlarging the resolution will cause more problems, such as that, it aggravates the large variant of object scale and introduces unbearable computation cost. To keep the benefits of high-resolution images without bringing up new problems, we proposed the High-Resolution Detection Network (HRDNet). HRDNet takes multiple resolution inputs using multi-depth backbones. To fully take advantage of multiple features, we proposed Multi-Depth Image Pyramid Network (MD-IPN) and Multi-Scale Feature Pyramid Network (MS-FPN) in HRDNet. MD-IPN maintains multiple position information using multiple depth backbones. Specifically, high-resolution input will be fed into a shallow network to reserve more positional information and reducing the computational cost while low-resolution input will be fed into a deep network to extract more semantics. By extracting various features from high to low resolutions, the MD-IPN is able to improve the performance of small object detection as well as maintaining the performance of middle and large objects. MS-FPN is proposed to align and fuse multi-scale feature groups generated by MD-IPN to reduce the information imbalance between these multi-scale multi-level features. Extensive experiments and ablation studies are conducted on the standard benchmark dataset MS COCO2017, Pascal VOC2007/2012 and a typical small object dataset, VisDrone 2019. Notably, our proposed HRDNet achieves the state-of-the-art on these datasets and it performs better on small objects.
[33] arXiv:2006.07597 [pdf]
Attribute-aware Identity-hard Triplet Loss for Video-based Person Re-identification
Zhiyuan Chen, Annan Li, Shilu Jiang, Yunhong Wang
Video-based person re-identification (Re-ID) is an important computer vision task. The batch-hard triplet loss frequently used in video-based person Re-ID suffers from the Distance Variance among Different Positives (DVDP) problem. In this paper, we address this issue by introducing a new metric learning method called Attribute-aware Identity-hard Triplet Loss (AITL), which reduces the intra-class variation among positive samples via calculating attribute distance. To achieve a complete model of video-based person Re-ID, a multi-task framework with Attribute-driven Spatio-Temporal Attention (ASTA) mechanism is also proposed. Extensive experiments on MARS and DukeMTMC-VID datasets shows that both the AITL and ASTA are very effective. Enhanced by them, even a simple light-weighted video-based person Re-ID baseline can outperform existing state-of-the-art approaches. The codes has been published on this https URL.
[34] arXiv:2006.07589 [pdf]
Adversarial Self-Supervised Contrastive Learning
Minseon Kim, Jihoon Tack, Sung Ju Hwang
Existing adversarial learning approaches mostly use class labels to generate adversarial samples that lead to incorrect predictions, which are then used to augment the training of the model for improved robustness. While some recent works propose semi-supervised adversarial learning methods that utilize unlabeled data, they still require class labels. However, do we really need class labels at all, for adversarially robust training of deep neural networks? In this paper, we propose a novel adversarial attack for unlabeled data, which makes the model confuse the instance-level identities of the perturbed data samples. Further, we present a self-supervised contrastive learning framework to adversarially train a robust neural network without labeled data, which aims to maximize the similarity between a random augmentation of a data sample and its instance-wise adversarial perturbation. We validate our method, Robust Contrastive Learning (RoCL), on multiple benchmark datasets, on which it obtains comparable robust accuracy over state-of-the-art supervised adversarial learning methods, and significantly improved robustness against the black box and unseen types of attacks. Moreover, with further joint fine-tuning with supervised adversarial loss, RoCL obtains even higher robust accuracy over using self-supervised learning alone. Notably, RoCL also demonstrate impressive results in robust transfer learning.
[35] arXiv:2006.07587 [pdf]
Semantic-driven Colorization
Man M. Ho, Lu Zhang, TU Ilmenau, Jinjia Zhou
Recent deep colorization works predict the semantic information implicitly while learning to colorize black-and-white photographic images. As a consequence, the generated color is easier to be overflowed, and the semantic faults are invisible. As human experience in coloring, the human first recognize which objects and their location in the photo, imagine which color is plausible for the objects as in real life, then colorize it. In this study, we simulate that human-like action to firstly let our network learn to segment what is in the photo, then colorize it. Therefore, our network can choose a plausible color under semantic constraint for specific objects, and give discriminative colors between them. Moreover, the segmentation map becomes understandable and interactable for the user. Our models are trained on PASCAL-Context and evaluated on selected images from the public domain and COCO-Stuff, which has several unseen categories compared to training data. As seen from the experimental results, our colorization system can provide plausible colors for specific objects and generate harmonious colors competitive with state-of-the-art methods.
[36] arXiv:2006.07567 [pdf]
Unbiased Auxiliary Classifier GANs with MINE
Ligong Han, Anastasis Stathopoulos, Tao Xue, Dimitris Metaxas
Auxiliary Classifier GANs (AC-GANs) are widely used conditional generative models and are capable of generating high-quality images. Previous work has pointed out that AC-GAN learns a biased distribution. To remedy this, Twin Auxiliary Classifier GAN (TAC-GAN) introduces a twin classifier to the min-max game. However, it has been reported that using a twin auxiliary classifier may cause instability in training. To this end, we propose an Unbiased Auxiliary GANs (UAC-GAN) that utilizes the Mutual Information Neural Estimator (MINE) to estimate the mutual information between the generated data distribution and labels. To further improve the performance, we also propose a novel projection-based statistics network architecture for MINE. Experimental results on three datasets, including Mixture of Gaussian (MoG), MNIST and CIFAR10 datasets, show that our UAC-GAN performs better than AC-GAN and TAC-GAN. Code can be found on the project website.
[37] arXiv:2006.07526 [pdf]
CBR-Net Cascade Boundary Refinement Network for Action Detection Submission to ActivityNet Challenge 2020 (Task 1)
Xiang Wang, Baiteng Ma, Zhiwu Qing, Yongpeng Sang, Changxin Gao, Shiwei Zhang, Nong Sang
In this report, we present our solution for the task of temporal action localization (detection) (task 1) in ActivityNet Challenge 2020. The purpose of this task is to temporally localize intervals where actions of interest occur and predict the action categories in a long untrimmed video. Our solution mainly includes three components 1) feature encoding we apply three kinds of backbones, including TSN [7], Slowfast[3] and I3d[1], which are both pretrained on Kinetics dataset[2]. Applying these models, we can extract snippet-level video representations; 2) proposal generation we choose BMN [5] as our baseline, base on which we design a Cascade Boundary Refinement Network (CBR-Net) to conduct proposal detection. The CBR-Net mainly contains two modules temporal feature encoding, which applies BiLSTM to encode long-term temporal information; CBR module, which targets to refine the proposal precision under different parameter settings; 3) action localization In this stage, we combine the video-level classification results obtained by the fine tuning networks to predict the category of each proposal. Moreover, we also apply to different ensemble strategies to improve the performance of the designed solution, by which we achieve 42.788% on the testing set of ActivityNet v1.3 dataset in terms of mean Average Precision metrics.
[38] arXiv:2006.07502 [pdf]
Weakly-supervised Any-shot Object Detection
Siddhesh Khandelwal, Raghav Goyal, Leonid Sigal
Methods for object detection and segmentation rely on large scale instance-level annotations for training, which are difficult and time-consuming to collect. Efforts to alleviate this look at varying degrees and quality of supervision. Weakly-supervised approaches draw on image-level labels to build detectors/segmentors, while zero/few-shot methods assume abundant instance-level data for a set of base classes, and none to a few examples for novel classes. This taxonomy has largely siloed algorithmic designs. In this work, we aim to bridge this divide by proposing an intuitive weakly-supervised model that is applicable to a range of supervision from zero to a few instance-level samples per novel class. For base classes, our model learns a mapping from weakly-supervised to fully-supervised detectors/segmentors. By learning and leveraging visual and lingual similarities between the novel and base classes, we transfer those mappings to obtain detectors/segmentors for novel classes; refining them with a few novel class instance-level annotated samples, if available. The overall model is end-to-end trainable and highly flexible. Through extensive experiments on MS-COCO and Pascal VOC benchmark datasets we show improved performance in a variety of settings.
[39] arXiv:2006.07475 [pdf]
Early Blindness Detection Based on Retinal Images Using Ensemble Learning
Niloy Sikder, Md. Sanaullah Chowdhury, Abu Shamim Mohammad Arif, Abdullah-Al Nahid
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the primary cause of vision loss among grownup people around the world. In four out of five cases having diabetes for a prolonged period leads to DR. If detected early, more than 90 percent of the new DR occurrences can be prevented from turning into blindness through proper treatment. Despite having multiple treatment procedures available that are well capable to deal with DR, the negligence and failure of early detection cost most of the DR patients their precious eyesight. The recent developments in the field of Digital Image Processing (DIP) and Machine Learning (ML) have paved the way to use machines in this regard. The contemporary technologies allow us to develop devices capable of automatically detecting the condition of a persons eyes based on their retinal images. However, in practice, several factors hinder the quality of the captured images and impede the detection outcome. In this study, a novel early blind detection method has been proposed based on the color information extracted from retinal images using an ensemble learning algorithm. The method has been tested on a set of retinal images collected from people living in the rural areas of South Asia, which resulted in a 91 percent classification accuracy.
[40] arXiv:2006.07469 [pdf]
TURB-Rot. A large database of 3d and 2d snapshots from turbulent rotating flows
L. Biferale, F. Bonaccorso, M. Buzzicotti, P. Clark di Leoni
We present TURB-Rot, a new open database of 3d and 2d snapshots of turbulent velocity fields, obtained by Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of the original Navier-Stokes equations in the presence of rotation. The aim is to provide the community interested in data-assimilation and/or computer vision with a new testing-ground made of roughly 300K complex images and fields. TURB-Rot data are characterized by multi-scales strongly non-Gaussian features and rough, non-differentiable, fields over almost two decades of scales. In addition, coming from fully resolved numerical simulations of the original partial differential equations, they offer the possibility to apply a wide range of approaches, from equation-free to physics-based models. TURB-Rot data are reachable at this http URL
[41] arXiv:2006.07345 [pdf]
Robust Baggage Detection and Classification Based on Local Tri-directional Pattern
Shahbano, Muhammad Abdullah, Kashif Inayat
In recent decades, the automatic video surveillance system has gained significant importance in computer vision community. The crucial objective of surveillance is monitoring and security in public places. In the traditional Local Binary Pattern, the feature description is somehow inaccurate, and the feature size is large enough. Therefore, to overcome these shortcomings, our research proposed a detection algorithm for a human with or without carrying baggage. The Local tri-directional pattern descriptor is exhibited to extract features of different human body parts including head, trunk, and limbs. Then with the help of support vector machine, extracted features are trained and evaluated. Experimental results on INRIA and MSMT17 V1 datasets show that LtriDP outperforms several state-of-the-art feature descriptors and validate its effectiveness.
[42] arXiv:2006.07228 [pdf]
FedGAN Federated Generative Adversarial Networks for Distributed Data
Mohammad Rasouli, Tao Sun, Ram Rajagopal
We propose Federated Generative Adversarial Network (FedGAN) for training a GAN across distributed sources of non-independent-and-identically-distributed data sources subject to communication and privacy constraints. Our algorithm uses local generators and discriminators which are periodically synced via an intermediary that averages and broadcasts the generator and discriminator parameters. We theoretically prove the convergence of FedGAN with both equal and two time-scale updates of generator and discriminator, under standard assumptions, using stochastic approximations and communication efficient stochastic gradient descents. We experiment FedGAN on toy examples (2D system, mixed Gaussian, and Swiss role), image datasets (MNIST, CIFAR-10, and CelebA), and time series datasets (household electricity consumption and electric vehicle charging sessions). We show FedGAN converges and has similar performance to general distributed GAN, while reduces communication complexity. We also show its robustness to reduced communications.
[43] arXiv:2006.07206 [pdf]
Branch-Cooperative OSNet for Person Re-Identification
Lei Zhang, Xiaofu Wu, Suofei Zhang, Zirui Yin
Multi-branch is extensively studied for learning rich feature representation for person re-identification (Re-ID). In this paper, we propose a branch-cooperative architecture over OSNet, termed BC-OSNet, for person Re-ID. By stacking four cooperative branches, namely, a global branch, a local branch, a relational branch and a contrastive branch, we obtain powerful feature representation for person Re-ID. Extensive experiments show that the proposed BC-OSNet achieves state-of-art performance on the three popular datasets, including Market-1501, DukeMTMC-reID and CUHK03. In particular, it achieves mAP of 84.0% and rank-1 accuracy of 87.1% on the CUHK03_labeled.
[44] arXiv:2006.07139 [pdf]
Attribute analysis with synthetic dataset for person re-identification
Suncheng Xiang, Yuzhuo Fu, Guanjie You, Ting Liu
Person re-identification (re-ID) plays an important role in applications such as public security and video surveillance. Recently, learning from synthetic data, which benefits from the popularity of synthetic data engine, have achieved remarkable performance. However, existing synthetic datasets are in small size and lack of diversity, which hinders the development of person re-ID in real-world scenarios. To address this problem, firstly, we develop a large-scale synthetic data engine, the salient characteristic of this engine is controllable. Based on it, we build a large-scale synthetic dataset, which are diversified and customized from different attributes, such as illumination and viewpoint. Secondly, we quantitatively analyze the influence of dataset attributes on re-ID system. To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt to explicitly dissect person re-ID from the aspect of attribute on synthetic dataset. Comprehensive experiments help us have a deeper understanding of the fundamental problems in person re-ID. Our research also provides useful insights for dataset building and future practical usage.
[45] arXiv:2006.06976 [pdf]
Towards Robust Pattern Recognition A Review
Xu-Yao Zhang, Cheng-Lin Liu, Ching Y. Suen
The accuracies for many pattern recognition tasks have increased rapidly year by year, achieving or even outperforming human performance. From the perspective of accuracy, pattern recognition seems to be a nearly-solved problem. However, once launched in real applications, the high-accuracy pattern recognition systems may become unstable and unreliable, due to the lack of robustness in open and changing environments. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of research towards robust pattern recognition from the perspective of breaking three basic and implicit assumptions closed-world assumption, independent and identically distributed assumption, and clean and big data assumption, which form the foundation of most pattern recognition models. Actually, our brain is robust at learning concepts continually and incrementally, in complex, open and changing environments, with different contexts, modalities and tasks, by showing only a few examples, under weak or noisy supervision. These are the major differences between human intelligence and machine intelligence, which are closely related to the above three assumptions. After witnessing the significant progress in accuracy improvement nowadays, this review paper will enable us to analyze the shortcomings and limitations of current methods and identify future research directions for robust pattern recognition.
[46] arXiv:2006.06930 [pdf]
LSSL Longitudinal Self-Supervised Learning
Qingyu Zhao, Zixuan Liu, Ehsan Adeli, Kilian M. Pohl
Longitudinal neuroimaging or biomedical studies often acquire multiple observations from each individual over time, which entails repeated measures with highly interdependent variables. In this paper, we discuss the implication of repeated measures design on unsupervised learning by showing its tight conceptual connection to self-supervised learning and factor disentanglement. Leveraging the ability for `self-comparison' through repeated measures, we explicitly separate the definition of the factor space and the representation space enabling an exact disentanglement of time-related factors from the representations of the images. By formulating deterministic multivariate mapping functions between the two spaces, our model, named Longitudinal Self-Supervised Learning (LSSL), uses a standard autoencoding structure with a cosine loss to estimate the direction linked to the disentangled factor. We apply LSSL to two longitudinal neuroimaging studies to show its unique advantage in extracting the `brain-age' information from the data and in revealing informative characteristics associated with neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders. For a downstream task of supervised diagnosis classification, the representations learned by LSSL permit faster convergence and higher (or similar) prediction accuracy compared to several other representation learning techniques.
[47] arXiv:2006.06893 [pdf]
Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machines Features Combined From Hundreds of Midlayers
Chandra Swarathesh Addanki
In this paper, we develop an algorithm called hierarchal online sequential learning algorithm (H-OS-ELM) for single feed feedforward network with features combined from hundreds of midlayers, the algorithm can learn chunk by chunk with fixed or varying block size, we believe that the diverse selectivity of neurons in top layers which consists of encoded distributed information produced by the other neurons offers better computational advantage over inference accuracy. Thus this paper proposes a Hierarchical model framework combined with Online-Sequential learning algorithm, Firstly the model consists of subspace feature extractor which consists of subnetwork neuron, using the sub-features which is result of the feature extractor in first layer of the hierarchy we get rid of irrelevant factors which are of no use for the learning and iterate this process so that to recast the the subfeatures into the hierarchical model to be processed into more acceptable cognition. Secondly by using OS-Elm we are using non-iterative style for learning we are implementing a network which is wider and shallow which plays a important role in generalizing the overall performance which in turn boosts up the learning speed
[48] arXiv:2006.06756 [pdf]
On Improving Temporal Consistency for Online Face Liveness Detection
Xiang Xu, Yuanjun Xiong, Wei Xia
In this paper, we focus on improving the online face liveness detection system to enhance the security of the downstream face recognition system. Most of the existing frame-based methods are suffering from the prediction inconsistency across time. To address the issue, a simple yet effective solution based on temporal consistency is proposed. Specifically, in the training stage, to integrate the temporal consistency constraint, a temporal self-supervision loss and a class consistency loss are proposed in addition to the softmax cross-entropy loss. In the deployment stage, a training-free non-parametric uncertainty estimation module is developed to smooth the predictions adaptively. Beyond the common evaluation approach, a video segment-based evaluation is proposed to accommodate more practical scenarios. Extensive experiments demonstrated that our solution is more robust against several presentation attacks in various scenarios, and significantly outperformed the state-of-the-art on multiple public datasets by at least 40% in terms of ACER. Besides, with much less computational complexity (33% fewer FLOPs), it provides great potential for low-latency online applications.
[49] arXiv:2006.06753 [pdf]
PRGFlow Benchmarking SWAP-Aware Unified Deep Visual Inertial Odometry
Nitin J. Sanket, Chahat Deep Singh, Cornelia Fermüller, Yiannis Aloimonos
Odometry on aerial robots has to be of low latency and high robustness whilst also respecting the Size, Weight, Area and Power (SWAP) constraints as demanded by the size of the robot. A combination of visual sensors coupled with Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) has proven to be the best combination to obtain robust and low latency odometry on resource-constrained aerial robots. Recently, deep learning approaches for Visual Inertial fusion have gained momentum due to their high accuracy and robustness. However, the remarkable advantages of these techniques are their inherent scalability (adaptation to different sized aerial robots) and unification (same method works on different sized aerial robots) by utilizing compression methods and hardware acceleration, which have been lacking from previous approaches. To this end, we present a deep learning approach for visual translation estimation and loosely fuse it with an Inertial sensor for full 6DoF odometry estimation. We also present a detailed benchmark comparing different architectures, loss functions and compression methods to enable scalability. We evaluate our network on the MSCOCO dataset and evaluate the VI fusion on multiple real-flight trajectories.
[50] arXiv:2006.06752 [pdf]
An Unsupervised Information-Theoretic Perceptual Quality Metric
Sangnie Bhardwaj, Ian Fischer, Johannes Ballé, Troy Chinen
Tractable models of human perception have proved to be challenging to build. Hand-designed models such as MS-SSIM remain popular predictors of human image quality judgements due to their simplicity and speed. Recent modern deep learning approaches can perform better, but they rely on supervised data which can be costly to gather large sets of class labels such as ImageNet, image quality ratings, or both. We combine recent advances in information-theoretic objective functions with a computational architecture informed by the physiology of the human visual system and unsupervised training on pairs of video frames, yielding our Perceptual Information Metric (PIM). We show that PIM is competitive with supervised metrics on the recent and challenging BAPPS image quality assessment dataset. We also perform qualitative experiments using the ImageNet-C dataset, and establish that our approach is robust with respect to architectural details.
[51] arXiv:2006.06676 [pdf]
Training Generative Adversarial Networks with Limited Data
Tero Karras, Miika Aittala, Janne Hellsten, Samuli Laine, Jaakko Lehtinen, Timo Aila
Training generative adversarial networks (GAN) using too little data typically leads to discriminator overfitting, causing training to diverge. We propose an adaptive discriminator augmentation mechanism that significantly stabilizes training in limited data regimes. The approach does not require changes to loss functions or network architectures, and is applicable both when training from scratch and when fine-tuning an existing GAN on another dataset. We demonstrate, on several datasets, that good results are now possible using only a few thousand training images, often matching StyleGAN2 results with an order of magnitude fewer images. We expect this to open up new application domains for GANs. We also find that the widely used CIFAR-10 is, in fact, a limited data benchmark, and improve the record FID from 5.59 to 2.67.
[52] arXiv:2006.06669 [pdf]
Understanding Human Hands in Contact at Internet Scale
Dandan Shan, Jiaqi Geng, Michelle Shu, David F. Fouhey
Hands are the central means by which humans manipulate their world and being able to reliably extract hand state information from Internet videos of humans engaged in their hands has the potential to pave the way to systems that can learn from petabytes of video data. This paper proposes steps towards this by inferring a rich representation of hands engaged in interaction method that includes hand location, side, contact state, and a box around the object in contact. To support this effort, we gather a large-scale dataset of hands in contact with objects consisting of 131 days of footage as well as a 100K annotated hand-contact video frame dataset. The learned model on this dataset can serve as a foundation for hand-contact understanding in videos. We quantitatively evaluate it both on its own and in service of predicting and learning from 3D meshes of human hands.
[53] arXiv:2006.06668 [pdf]
Disentangled Non-Local Neural Networks
Minghao Yin, Zhuliang Yao, Yue Cao, Xiu Li, Zheng Zhang, Stephen Lin, Han Hu
The non-local block is a popular module for strengthening the context modeling ability of a regular convolutional neural network. This paper first studies the non-local block in depth, where we find that its attention computation can be split into two terms, a whitened pairwise term accounting for the relationship between two pixels and a unary term representing the saliency of every pixel. We also observe that the two terms trained alone tend to model different visual clues, e.g. the whitened pairwise term learns within-region relationships while the unary term learns salient boundaries. However, the two terms are tightly coupled in the non-local block, which hinders the learning of each. Based on these findings, we present the disentangled non-local block, where the two terms are decoupled to facilitate learning for both terms. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoupled design on various tasks, such as semantic segmentation on Cityscapes, ADE20K and PASCAL Context, object detection on COCO, and action recognition on Kinetics.
[54] arXiv:2006.06664 [pdf]
Quasi-Dense Instance Similarity Learning
Jiangmiao Pang, Linlu Qiu, Haofeng Chen, Qi Li, Trevor Darrell, Fisher Yu
Similarity metrics for instances have drawn much attention, due to their importance for computer vision problems such as object tracking. However, existing methods regard object similarity learning as a post-hoc stage after object detection and only use sparse ground truth matching as the training objective. This process ignores the majority of the regions on the images. In this paper, we present a simple yet effective quasi-dense matching method to learn instance similarity from hundreds of region proposals in a pair of images. In the resulting feature space, a simple nearest neighbor search can distinguish different instances without bells and whistles. When applied to joint object detection and tracking, our method can outperform existing methods without using location or motion heuristics, yielding almost 10 points higher MOTA on BDD100K and Waymo tracking datasets. Our method is also competitive on one-shot object detection, which further shows the effectiveness of quasi-dense matching for category-level metric learning. The code will be available at this https URL.
[55] arXiv:2006.06658 [pdf]
Robust Multi-object Matching via Iterative Reweighting of the Graph Connection Laplacian
Yunpeng Shi, Shaohan Li, Gilad Lerman
We propose an efficient and robust iterative solution to the multi-object matching problem. We first clarify serious limitations of current methods as well as the inappropriateness of the standard iteratively reweighted least squares procedure. In view of these limitations, we propose a novel and more reliable iterative reweighting strategy that incorporates information from higher-order neighborhoods by exploiting the graph connection Laplacian. We demonstrate the superior performance of our procedure over state-of-the-art methods using both synthetic and real datasets.
[56] arXiv:2006.06649 [pdf]
Closed Loop Neural-Symbolic Learning via Integrating Neural Perception, Grammar Parsing, and Symbolic Reasoning
Qing Li, Siyuan Huang, Yining Hong, Yixin Chen, Ying Nian Wu, Song-Chun Zhu
The goal of neural-symbolic computation is to integrate the connectionist and symbolist paradigms. Prior methods learn the neural-symbolic models using reinforcement learning (RL) approaches, which ignore the error propagation in the symbolic reasoning module and thus converge slowly with sparse rewards. In this paper, we address these issues and close the loop of neural-symbolic learning by (1) introducing the \textbf{grammar} model as a \textit{symbolic prior} to bridge neural perception and symbolic reasoning, and (2) proposing a novel \textbf{back-search} algorithm which mimics the top-down human-like learning procedure to propagate the error through the symbolic reasoning module efficiently. We further interpret the proposed learning framework as maximum likelihood estimation using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and the back-search algorithm as a Metropolis-Hastings sampler. The experiments are conducted on two weakly-supervised neural-symbolic tasks (1) handwritten formula recognition on the newly introduced HWF dataset; (2) visual question answering on the CLEVR dataset. The results show that our approach significantly outperforms the RL methods in terms of performance, converging speed, and data efficiency. Our code and data are released at \url{this https URL}.
[57] arXiv:2006.06637 [pdf]
Exploring Weaknesses of VQA Models through Attribution Driven Insights
Shaunak Halbe
Deep Neural Networks have been successfully used for the task of Visual Question Answering for the past few years owing to the availability of relevant large scale datasets. However these datasets are created in artificial settings and rarely reflect the real world scenario. Recent research effectively applies these VQA models for answering visual questions for the blind. Despite achieving high accuracy these models appear to be susceptible to variation in input questions.We analyze popular VQA models through the lens of attribution (input's influence on predictions) to gain valuable insights. Further, We use these insights to craft adversarial attacks which inflict significant damage to these systems with negligible change in meaning of the input questions. We believe this will enhance development of systems more robust to the possible variations in inputs when deployed to assist the visually impaired.
[58] arXiv:2006.06624 [pdf]
SLIC-UAV A Method for monitoring recovery in tropical restoration projects through identification of signature species using UAVs
Jonathan Williams, Carola-Bibiane Schönlieb, Tom Swinfield, Bambang Irawan, Eva Achmad, Muhammad Zudhi, Habibi, Elva Gemita, David A. Coomes
Logged forests cover four million square kilometres of the tropics and restoring these forests is essential if we are to avoid the worst impacts of climate change, yet monitoring recovery is challenging. Tracking the abundance of visually identifiable, early-successional species enables successional status and thereby restoration progress to be evaluated. Here we present a new pipeline, SLIC-UAV, for processing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery to map early-successional species in tropical forests. The pipeline is novel because it comprises (a) a time-efficient approach for labelling crowns from UAV imagery; (b) machine learning of species based on spectral and textural features within individual tree crowns, and (c) automatic segmentation of orthomosaiced UAV imagery into 'superpixels', using Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC). Creating superpixels reduces the dataset's dimensionality and focuses prediction onto clusters of pixels, greatly improving accuracy. To demonstrate SLIC-UAV, support vector machines and random forests were used to predict the species of hand-labelled crowns in a restoration concession in Indonesia. Random forests were most accurate at discriminating species for whole crowns, with accuracy ranging from 79.3% when mapping five common species, to 90.5% when mapping the three most visually-distinctive species. In contrast, support vector machines proved better for labelling automatically segmented superpixels, with accuracy ranging from 74.3% to 91.7% for the same species. Models were extended to map species across 100 hectares of forest. The study demonstrates the power of SLIC-UAV for mapping characteristic early-successional tree species as an indicator of successional stage within tropical forest restoration areas. Continued effort is needed to develop easy-to-implement and low-cost technology to improve the affordability of project management.
[59] arXiv:2006.06567 [pdf]
Exploring Category-Agnostic Clusters for Open-Set Domain Adaptation
Yingwei Pan, Ting Yao, Yehao Li, Chong-Wah Ngo, Tao Mei
Unsupervised domain adaptation has received significant attention in recent years. Most of existing works tackle the closed-set scenario, assuming that the source and target domains share the exactly same categories. In practice, nevertheless, a target domain often contains samples of classes unseen in source domain (i.e., unknown class). The extension of domain adaptation from closed-set to such open-set situation is not trivial since the target samples in unknown class are not expected to align with the source. In this paper, we address this problem by augmenting the state-of-the-art domain adaptation technique, Self-Ensembling, with category-agnostic clusters in target domain. Specifically, we present Self-Ensembling with Category-agnostic Clusters (SE-CC) -- a novel architecture that steers domain adaptation with the additional guidance of category-agnostic clusters that are specific to target domain. These clustering information provides domain-specific visual cues, facilitating the generalization of Self-Ensembling for both closed-set and open-set scenarios. Technically, clustering is firstly performed over all the unlabeled target samples to obtain the category-agnostic clusters, which reveal the underlying data space structure peculiar to target domain. A clustering branch is capitalized on to ensure that the learnt representation preserves such underlying structure by matching the estimated assignment distribution over clusters to the inherent cluster distribution for each target sample. Furthermore, SE-CC enhances the learnt representation with mutual information maximization. Extensive experiments are conducted on Office and VisDA datasets for both open-set and closed-set domain adaptation, and superior results are reported when comparing to the state-of-the-art approaches.
[60] arXiv:2006.06500 [pdf]
Rethinking the Truly Unsupervised Image-to-Image Translation
Kyungjune Baek, Yunjey Choi, Youngjung Uh, Jaejun Yoo, Hyunjung Shim
Every recent image-to-image translation model uses either image-level (i.e. input-output pairs) or set-level (i.e. domain labels) supervision at minimum. However, even the set-level supervision can be a serious bottleneck for data collection in practice. In this paper, we tackle image-to-image translation in a fully unsupervised setting, i.e., neither paired images nor domain labels. To this end, we propose the truly unsupervised image-to-image translation method (TUNIT) that simultaneously learns to separate image domains via an information-theoretic approach and generate corresponding images using the estimated domain labels. Experimental results on various datasets show that the proposed method successfully separates domains and translates images across those domains. In addition, our model outperforms existing set-level supervised methods under a semi-supervised setting, where a subset of domain labels is provided. The source code is available at this https URL
[61] arXiv:2006.06460 [pdf]
Minimum Potential Energy of Point Cloud for Robust Global Registration
Zijie Wu, Yaonan Wang, Qing Zhu, Jianxu Mao, Haotian Wu, Mingtao Feng, Ajmal Mian
In this paper, we propose a novel minimum gravitational potential energy (MPE)-based algorithm for global point set registration. The feature descriptors extraction algorithms have emerged as the standard approach to align point sets in the past few decades. However, the alignment can be challenging to take effect when the point set suffers from raw point data problems such as noises (Gaussian and Uniformly). Different from the most existing point set registration methods which usually extract the descriptors to find correspondences between point sets, our proposed MPE alignment method is able to handle large scale raw data offset without depending on traditional descriptors extraction, whether for the local or global registration methods. We decompose the solution into a global optimal convex approximation and the fast descent process to a local minimum. For the approximation step, the proposed minimum potential energy (MPE) approach consists of two main steps. Firstly, according to the construction of the force traction operator, we could simply compute the position of the potential energy minimum; Secondly, with respect to the finding of the MPE point, we propose a new theory that employs the two flags to observe the status of the registration procedure. The method of fast descent process to the minimum that we employed is the iterative closest point algorithm; it can achieve the global minimum. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm on synthetic data as well as on real data. The proposed method outperforms the other global methods in terms of both efficiency, accuracy and noise resistance.
[62] arXiv:2006.06385 [pdf]
TensorFlow with user friendly Graphical Framework for object detection API
Heemoon Yoon, Sang-Hee Lee, Mira Park
TensorFlow is an open-source framework for deep learning dataflow and contains application programming interfaces (APIs) of voice analysis, natural language process, and computer vision. Especially, TensorFlow object detection API in computer vision field has been widely applied to technologies of agriculture, engineering, and medicine but barriers to entry of the framework usage is still high through command-line interface (CLI) and code for amateurs and beginners of information technology (IT) field. Therefore, this is aim to develop an user friendly Graphical Framework for object detection API on TensorFlow which is called TensorFlow Graphical Framework (TF-GraF). The TF-GraF provides independent virtual environments according to user accounts in server-side, additionally, execution of data preprocessing, training, and evaluation without CLI in client-side. Furthermore, hyperparameter setting, real-time observation of training process, object visualization of test images, and metrics evaluations of test data can also be operated via TF-GraF. Especially, TF-GraF supports flexible model selection of SSD, Faster-RCNN, RFCN, and Mask-RCNN including convolutional neural networks (inceptions and ResNets) through GUI environment. Consequently, TF-GraF allows anyone, even without any previous knowledge of deep learning frameworks, to design, train and deploy machine intelligence models without coding. Since TF-GraF takes care of setting and configuration, it allows anyone to use deep learning technology for their project without spending time to install complex software and environment.
[63] arXiv:2006.06356 [pdf]
Adversarial Attack Vulnerability of Medical Image Analysis Systems Unexplored Factors
Suzanne C. Wetstein, Cristina González-Gonzalo, Gerda Bortsova, Bart Liefers, Florian Dubost, Ioannis Katramados, Laurens Hogeweg, Bram van Ginneken, Josien P.W. Pluim, Marleen de Bruijne, Clara I. Sánchez, Mitko Veta
Adversarial attacks are considered a potentially serious security threat for machine learning systems. Medical image analysis (MedIA) systems have recently been argued to be particularly vulnerable to adversarial attacks due to strong financial incentives. In this paper, we study several previously unexplored factors affecting adversarial attack vulnerability of deep learning MedIA systems in three medical domains ophthalmology, radiology and pathology. Firstly, we study the effect of varying the degree of adversarial perturbation on the attack performance and its visual perceptibility. Secondly, we study how pre-training on a public dataset (ImageNet) affects the models' vulnerability to attacks. Thirdly, we study the influence of data and model architecture disparity between target and attacker models. Our experiments show that the degree of perturbation significantly affects both performance and human perceptibility of attacks. Pre-training may dramatically increase the transfer of adversarial examples; the larger the performance gain achieved by pre-training, the larger the transfer. Finally, disparity in data and/or model architecture between target and attacker models substantially decreases the success of attacks. We believe that these factors should be considered when designing cybersecurity-critical MedIA systems, as well as kept in mind when evaluating their vulnerability to adversarial attacks.
[64] arXiv:2006.06325 [pdf]
CoMIR Contrastive Multimodal Image Representation for Registration
Nicolas Pielawski, Elisabeth Wetzer, Johan Öfverstedt, Jiahao Lu, Carolina Wählby, Joakim Lindblad, Nataša Sladoje
We propose contrastive coding to learn shared, dense image representations, referred to as CoMIRs (Contrastive Multimodal Image Representations). CoMIRs enable the registration of multimodal images where existing registration methods often fail due to a lack of sufficiently similar image structures. CoMIRs reduce the multimodal registration problem to a monomodal one in which general intensity-based, as well as feature-based, registration algorithms can be applied. The method involves training one neural network per modality on aligned images, using a contrastive loss based on noise-contrastive estimation (InfoNCE). Unlike other contrastive coding methods, used for e.g. classification, our approach generates image-like representations that contain the information shared between modalities. We introduce a novel, hyperparameter-free modification to InfoNCE, to enforce rotational equivariance of the learnt representations, a property essential to the registration task. We assess the extent of achieved rotational equivariance and the stability of the representations with respect to weight initialization, training set, and hyperparameter settings, on a remote sensing dataset of RGB and near-infrared images. We evaluate the learnt representations through registration of a biomedical dataset of bright-field and second-harmonic generation microscopy images; two modalities with very little apparent correlation. The proposed approach based on CoMIRs significantly outperforms registration of representations created by GAN-based image-to-image translation, as well as a state-of-the-art, application-specific method which takes additional knowledge about the data into account. Code is available at this https URL.
[65] arXiv:2006.06278 [pdf]
DSU-net Dense SegU-net for automatic head-and-neck tumor segmentation in MR images
Pin Tang, Chen Zu, Mei Hong, Rui Yan, Xingchen Peng, Jianghong Xiao, Xi Wu, Jiliu Zhou, Luping Zhou, Yan Wang
Precise and accurate segmentation of the most common head-and-neck tumor, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), in MRI sheds light on treatment and regulatory decisions making. However, the large variations in the lesion size and shape of NPC, boundary ambiguity, as well as the limited available annotated samples conspire NPC segmentation in MRI towards a challenging task. In this paper, we propose a Dense SegU-net (DSU-net) framework for automatic NPC segmentation in MRI. Our contribution is threefold. First, different from the traditional decoder in U-net using upconvolution for upsamling, we argue that the restoration from low resolution features to high resolution output should be capable of preserving information significant for precise boundary localization. Hence, we use unpooling to unsample and propose SegU-net. Second, to combat the potential vanishing-gradient problem, we introduce dense blocks which can facilitate feature propagation and reuse. Third, using only cross entropy (CE) as loss function may bring about troubles such as miss-prediction, therefore we propose to use a loss function comprised of both CE loss and Dice loss to train the network. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons are carried out extensively on in-house datasets, the experimental results show that our proposed architecture outperforms the existing state-of-the-art segmentation networks.
[66] arXiv:2006.06246 [pdf]
Privacy-Aware Activity Classification from First Person Office Videos
Partho Ghosh, Md. Abrar Istiak, Nayeeb Rashid, Ahsan Habib Akash, Ridwan Abrar, Ankan Ghosh Dastider, Asif Shahriyar Sushmit, Taufiq Hasan
In the advent of wearable body-cameras, human activity classification from First-Person Videos (FPV) has become a topic of increasing importance for various applications, including in life-logging, law-enforcement, sports, workplace, and healthcare. One of the challenging aspects of FPV is its exposure to potentially sensitive objects within the user's field of view. In this work, we developed a privacy-aware activity classification system focusing on office videos. We utilized a Mask-RCNN with an Inception-ResNet hybrid as a feature extractor for detecting, and then blurring out sensitive objects (e.g., digital screens, human face, paper) from the videos. For activity classification, we incorporate an ensemble of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) with ResNet, ResNext, and DenseNet based feature extractors. The proposed system was trained and evaluated on the FPV office video dataset that includes 18-classes made available through the IEEE Video and Image Processing (VIP) Cup 2019 competition. On the original unprotected FPVs, the proposed activity classifier ensemble reached an accuracy of 85.078% with precision, recall, and F1 scores of 0.88, 0.85 & 0.86, respectively. On privacy protected videos, the performances were slightly degraded, with accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 scores at 73.68%, 0.79, 0.75, and 0.74, respectively. The presented system won the 3rd prize in the IEEE VIP Cup 2019 competition.
[67] arXiv:2006.06200 [pdf]
Unsupervised Learning of 3D Point Set Registration
Lingjing Wang, Xiang Li, Yi Fang
Point cloud registration is the process of aligning a pair of point sets via searching for a geometric transformation. Recent works leverage the power of deep learning for registering a pair of point sets. However, unfortunately, deep learning models often require a large number of ground truth labels for training. Moreover, for a pair of source and target point sets, existing deep learning mechanisms require explicitly designed encoders to extract both deep spatial features from unstructured point clouds and their spatial correlation representation, which is further fed to a decoder to regress the desired geometric transformation for point set alignment. To further enhance deep learning models for point set registration, this paper proposes Deep-3DAligner, a novel unsupervised registration framework based on a newly introduced deep Spatial Correlation Representation (SCR) feature. The SCR feature describes the geometric essence of the spatial correlation between source and target point sets in an encoding-free manner. More specifically, our method starts with optimizing a randomly initialized latent SCR feature, which is then decoded to a geometric transformation (i.e., rotation and translation) to align source and target point sets. Our Deep-3DAligner jointly updates the SCR feature and weights of the transformation decoder towards the minimization of an unsupervised alignment loss. We conducted experiments on the ModelNet40 datasets to validate the performance of our unsupervised Deep-3DAligner for point set registration. The results demonstrated that, even without ground truth and any assumption of a direct correspondence between source and target point sets for training, our proposed approach achieved comparative performance compared to most recent supervised state-of-the-art approaches.
[68] arXiv:2006.06196 [pdf]
An Edge Information and Mask Shrinking Based Image Inpainting Approach
Huali Xu, Xiangdong Su, Meng Wang, Xiang Hao, Guanglai Gao
In the image inpainting task, the ability to repair both high-frequency and low-frequency information in the missing regions has a substantial influence on the quality of the restored image. However, existing inpainting methods usually fail to consider both high-frequency and low-frequency information simultaneously. To solve this problem, this paper proposes edge information and mask shrinking based image inpainting approach, which consists of two models. The first model is an edge generation model used to generate complete edge information from the damaged image, and the second model is an image completion model used to fix the missing regions with the generated edge information and the valid contents of the damaged image. The mask shrinking strategy is employed in the image completion model to track the areas to be repaired. The proposed approach is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively on the dataset Places2. The result shows our approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
[69] arXiv:2006.06175 [pdf]
Telling Left from Right Learning Spatial Correspondence of Sight and Sound
Karren Yang, Bryan Russell, Justin Salamon
Self-supervised audio-visual learning aims to capture useful representations of video by leveraging correspondences between visual and audio inputs. Existing approaches have focused primarily on matching semantic information between the sensory streams. We propose a novel self-supervised task to leverage an orthogonal principle matching spatial information in the audio stream to the positions of sound sources in the visual stream. Our approach is simple yet effective. We train a model to determine whether the left and right audio channels have been flipped, forcing it to reason about spatial localization across the visual and audio streams. To train and evaluate our method, we introduce a large-scale video dataset, YouTube-ASMR-300K, with spatial audio comprising over 900 hours of footage. We demonstrate that understanding spatial correspondence enables models to perform better on three audio-visual tasks, achieving quantitative gains over supervised and self-supervised baselines that do not leverage spatial audio cues. We also show how to extend our self-supervised approach to 360 degree videos with ambisonic audio.
[70] arXiv:2006.06156 [pdf]
Image Deconvolution via Noise-Tolerant Self-Supervised Inversion
Hirofumi Kobayashi, Ahmet Can Solak, Joshua Batson, Loic A. Royer
We propose a general framework for solving inverse problems in the presence of noise that requires no signal prior, no noise estimate, and no clean training data. We only require that the forward model be available and that the noise be statistically independent across measurement dimensions. We build upon the theory of $\mathcal{J}$-invariant functions (Batson & Royer 2019, arXiv1901.11365) and show how self-supervised denoising \emph{à la} Noise2Self is a special case of learning a noise-tolerant pseudo-inverse of the identity. We demonstrate our approach by showing how a convolutional neural network can be taught in a self-supervised manner to deconvolve images and surpass in image quality classical inversion schemes such as Lucy-Richardson deconvolution.
[71] arXiv:2006.06059 [pdf]
Joint Training of Variational Auto-Encoder and Latent Energy-Based Model
Tian Han, Erik Nijkamp, Linqi Zhou, Bo Pang, Song-Chun Zhu, Ying Nian Wu
This paper proposes a joint training method to learn both the variational auto-encoder (VAE) and the latent energy-based model (EBM). The joint training of VAE and latent EBM are based on an objective function that consists of three Kullback-Leibler divergences between three joint distributions on the latent vector and the image, and the objective function is of an elegant symmetric and anti-symmetric form of divergence triangle that seamlessly integrates variational and adversarial learning. In this joint training scheme, the latent EBM serves as a critic of the generator model, while the generator model and the inference model in VAE serve as the approximate synthesis sampler and inference sampler of the latent EBM. Our experiments show that the joint training greatly improves the synthesis quality of the VAE. It also enables learning of an energy function that is capable of detecting out of sample examples for anomaly detection.
[72] arXiv:2006.06038 [pdf]
Map3D Registration Based Multi-Object Tracking on 3D Serial Whole Slide Images
Ruining Deng, Haichun Yang, Aadarsh Jha, Yuzhe Lu, Peng Chu, Agnes Fogo, Yuankai Huo
There has been a long pursuit for precise and reproducible glomerular quantification on renal pathology to leverage both research and practice. When digitizing the biopsy tissue samples using whole slide imaging (WSI), a set of serial sections from the same tissue can be acquired as a stack of images, similar to frames in a video. In radiology, the stack of images (e.g., computed tomography) is naturally used to provide 3D context for organs, tissues, and tumors. In pathology, it is appealing to do a similar 3D assessment for glomeruli using a stack of serial WSI sections. However, the 3D identification and association of large-scale glomeruli on renal pathology is challenging due to large tissue deformation, missing tissues, and artifacts from WSI. Therefore, existing 3D quantitative assessments of glomeruli are still largely operated by manual or semi-automated methods, leading to labor costs, low-throughput processing, and inter-observer variability. In this paper, we propose a novel Multi-Object Association for Pathology in 3D (Map3D) method for automatically identifying and associating large-scale cross-sections of 3D objects from routine serial sectioning and WSI. The innovations of the Map3D method are three-fold (1) the large-scale glomerular association is principled from a new multi-object tracking (MOT) perspective; (2) the quality-aware whole series registration is proposed to not only provide affinity estimation but also offer automatic kidney-wise quality assurance (QA) for registration; (3) a dual-path association method is proposed to tackle the large deformation, missing tissues, and artifacts during tracking. To the best of our knowledge, the Map3D method is the first approach that enables automatic and large-scale glomerular association across 3D serial sectioning using WSI.
[73] arXiv:2006.06017 [pdf]
Revisiting visual-inertial structure from motion for odometry and SLAM initialization
Georgios Evangelidis, Branislav Micusik
In this paper, an efficient closed-form solution for the state initialization in visual-inertial odometry (VIO) and simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is presented. Unlike the state-of-the-art, we do not derive linear equations from triangulating pairs of point observations. Instead, we build on a direct triangulation of the unknown $3D$ point paired with each of its observations. We show and validate the high impact of such a simple difference. The resulting linear system has a simpler structure and the solution through analytic elimination only requires solving a $6\times 6$ linear system (or $9 \times 9$ when accelerometer bias is included). In addition, all the observations of every scene point are jointly related, thereby leading to a less biased and more robust solution. The proposed formulation attains up to $50$ percent decreased velocity and point reconstruction error compared to the standard closed-form solver. Apart from the inherent efficiency, fewer iterations are needed by any further non-linear refinement thanks to better parameter initialization. In this context, we provide the analytic Jacobians for a non-linear optimizer that optionally refines the initial parameters. The superior performance of the proposed solver is established by quantitative comparisons with the state-of-the-art solver.
[74] arXiv:2006.05938 [pdf]
Simple and effective localized attribute representations for zero-shot learning
Shiqi Yang, Kai Wang, Luis Herranz, Joost van de Weijer
Zero-shot learning (ZSL) aims to discriminate images from unseen classes by exploiting relations to seen classes via their semantic descriptions. Some recent papers have shown the importance of localized features together with fine-tuning the feature extractor to obtain discriminative and transferable features. However, these methods require complex attention or part detection modules to perform explicit localization in the visual space. In contrast, in this paper we propose localizing representations in the semantic/attribute space, with a simple but effective pipeline where localization is implicit. Focusing on attribute representations, we show that our method obtains state-of-the-art performance on CUB and SUN datasets, and also achieves competitive results on AWA2 dataset, outperforming generally more complex methods with explicit localization in the visual space. Our method can be implemented easily, which can be used as a new baseline for zero shot learning.
[75] arXiv:2006.05926 [pdf]
Separable Four Points Fundamental Matrix
Gil Ben-Artzi
We present an approach for the computation of the fundamental matrix based on epipolar homography decomposition. We analyze the geometrical meaning of the decomposition-based representation and show that it guarantees a minimal number of RANSAC samples, on the condition that four correspondences are on an image line. Experiments on real-world image pairs show that our approach successfully recovers such four correspondences, provides accurate results and requires a very small number of RANSAC iterations.
[76] arXiv:2006.05895 [pdf]
DisCont Self-Supervised Visual Attribute Disentanglement using Context Vectors
Sarthak Bhagat, Vishaal Udandarao, Shagun Uppal
Disentangling the underlying feature attributes within an image with no prior supervision is a challenging task. Models that can disentangle attributes well provide greater interpretability and control. In this paper, we propose a self-supervised framework DisCont to disentangle multiple attributes by exploiting the structural inductive biases within images. Motivated by the recent surge in contrastive learning paradigms, our model bridges the gap between self-supervised contrastive learning algorithms and unsupervised disentanglement. We evaluate the efficacy of our approach, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on four benchmark datasets.
[77] arXiv:2006.05888 [pdf]
Speech Fusion to Face Bridging the Gap Between Human's Vocal Characteristics and Facial Imaging
Yeqi Bai, Tao Ma, Lipo Wang, Zhenjie Zhang
While deep learning technologies are now capable of generating realistic images confusing humans, the research efforts are turning to the synthesis of images for more concrete and application-specific purposes. Facial image generation based on vocal characteristics from speech is one of such important yet challenging tasks. It is the key enabler to influential use cases of image generation, especially for business in public security and entertainment. Existing solutions to the problem of speech2face renders limited image quality and fails to preserve facial similarity due to the lack of quality dataset for training and appropriate integration of vocal features. In this paper, we investigate these key technical challenges and propose Speech Fusion to Face, or SF2F in short, attempting to address the issue of facial image quality and the poor connection between vocal feature domain and modern image generation models. By adopting new strategies on data model and training, we demonstrate dramatic performance boost over state-of-the-art solution, by doubling the recall of individual identity, and lifting the quality score from 15 to 19 based on the mutual information score with VGGFace classifier.
[78] arXiv:2006.05847 [pdf]
Searching Learning Strategy with Reinforcement Learning for 3D Medical Image Segmentation
Dong Yang, Holger Roth, Ziyue Xu, Fausto Milletari, Ling Zhang, Daguang Xu
Deep neural network (DNN) based approaches have been widely investigated and deployed in medical image analysis. For example, fully convolutional neural networks (FCN) achieve the state-of-the-art performance in several applications of 2D/3D medical image segmentation. Even the baseline neural network models (U-Net, V-Net, etc.) have been proven to be very effective and efficient when the training process is set up properly. Nevertheless, to fully exploit the potentials of neural networks, we propose an automated searching approach for the optimal training strategy with reinforcement learning. The proposed approach can be utilized for tuning hyper-parameters, and selecting necessary data augmentation with certain probabilities. The proposed approach is validated on several tasks of 3D medical image segmentation. The performance of the baseline model is boosted after searching, and it can achieve comparable accuracy to other manually-tuned state-of-the-art segmentation approaches.
[79] arXiv:2006.05838 [pdf]
To Regularize or Not To Regularize? The Bias Variance Trade-off in Regularized AEs
Arnab Kumar Mondal, Himanshu Asnani, Parag Singla, Prathosh AP
Regularized Auto-Encoders (AE) form a rich class of methods within the landscape of neural generative models. They effectively model the joint-distribution between the data and a latent space using an Encoder-Decoder combination, with regularization imposed in terms of a prior over the latent space. Despite their advantages such as stability in training, the performance of AE based models has not reached that of the other models such as GANs. While several reasons including the presence of conflicting terms in the objective, distributional choices imposed on the Encoder and the Decoder, and dimensionality of the latent space have been identified as possible causes for the suboptimal performance, the role of the regularization (prior distribution) imposed has not been studied systematically. Motivated by this, we examine the effect of the latent prior on the generation quality of the AE models in this paper. We show that there is no single fixed prior which is optimal for all data distributions, given a Gaussian Decoder. Further, with finite data, we show that there exists a bias-variance trade-off that comes with prior imposition. As a remedy, we optimize a generalized ELBO objective, with an additional state space over the latent prior. We implicitly learn this flexible prior jointly with the AE training using an adversarial learning technique, which facilitates operation on different points of the bias-variance curve. Our experiments on multiple datasets show that the proposed method is the new state-of-the-art for AE based generative models.
[80] arXiv:2006.05713 [pdf]
Unique Faces Recognition in Videos
Jiahao Huo, Terence L van Zyl
This paper tackles face recognition in videos employing metric learning methods and similarity ranking models. The paper compares the use of the Siamese network with contrastive loss and Triplet Network with triplet loss implementing the following architectures Google/Inception architecture, 3D Convolutional Network (C3D), and a 2-D Long short-term memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Network. We make use of still images and sequences from videos for training the networks and compare the performances implementing the above architectures. The dataset used was the YouTube Face Database designed for investigating the problem of face recognition in videos. The contribution of this paper is two-fold to begin, the experiments have established 3-D Convolutional networks and 2-D LSTMs with the contrastive loss on image sequences do not outperform Google/Inception architecture with contrastive loss in top $n$ rank face retrievals with still images. However, the 3-D Convolution networks and 2-D LSTM with triplet Loss outperform the Google/Inception with triplet loss in top $n$ rank face retrievals on the dataset; second, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) was used in conjunction with the CNNs' learned feature representations for facial identification. The results show that feature representation learned with triplet loss is significantly better for n-shot facial identification compared to contrastive loss. The most useful feature representations for facial identification are from the 2-D LSTM with triplet loss. The experiments show that learning spatio-temporal features from video sequences is beneficial for facial recognition in videos.

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